Throughout life, cells known as osteoblasts construct bone matrix and fill it with calcium. At the same time, other cells, called osteoclasts, work to tear down and resorb bone. This fine balance is regulated by many factors, including systemic hormones and cytokines. Bone mass reaches its peak by the middle of the third decade of life and plateaus for about ten years. During this time bone turnover is constant, with bone formation approximately equalling bone resorption. As we age, this fine balance is lost. As women experience more hormone levels shifts than men, the osteoclasts gain the upper hand and bone mass begins to decrease. A part of it is lost before women reach menopause, yet the rate of loss can increase up to tenfold during the first five years after menopause. Bone density loss is not just associated with calcium deficiency, but also with an insufficient intake of nutrients, including magnesium and vitamin D3. For the benefits of calcium in maintaining healthy bones adequate amounts of vitamin D3, zinc, magnesium, manganese and other nutrients should be available. That helps calcium and phosphorus to be incorporated into the bone matrix. Another problem is that many forms of calcium are not particularly well absorbed. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, primarily found in bones and teeth. In bone formation, calcium forms crystals that provide strength to maturing bone. While loss of bone mineral density is more common for women, ageing men can experience it too. Both groups may have significant deficits of magnesium, if they do not supplement. Bone Restore now contains 300 mg of magnesium. Magnesium is not only needed to maintain strong bones, but it is critical to promoting a healthy vascular system. In fact, magnesium is critical for facilitating hundreds of enzymatic reactions that our bodies require to maintain optimal health. To overcome obstacles that hinder optimal calcium status, Life Extension offers a proprietary mineral formula, Bone Restore, designed to support healthy bone density and strength. This product provides 700 milligrams of elemental calcium from three different forms, along with the critically important nutrients (magnesium, boron, zinc, silicon, manganese and vitamin D3), needed for healthy bones. Moreover, Bone Restore provides calcium in capsule form to ensure that it breaks down fully in the digestive tract, for better absorption. The boron in this formula, called FruiteX B® OsteoBoron®, is a boron/carbohydrate complex, similar to what is found in fruits and vegetables. While being more bioavailable than boron citrate, it has been proven to have beneficial effects on the strength of bones and joints. It is recommended to not take calcium and other minerals with fibre, because fibre can interfere with their absorption. There is evidence that calcium from supplements and dairy foods may inhibit iron absorption. However, it has been very difficult to distinguish between the effects of calcium on iron absorption and other inhibitory factors, such as phytate.Calcium supplements are best taken during meals. They should always be taken with a full glass of water, juice or other liquid to enhance solubility. If calcium-containing formulas are taken only once per day, they may be best taken in the evening.